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Calcium Nitrate
Calcium nitrate, also called Norgessalpeter (Norwegian saltpeter), is the inorganic compound with the formula Ca(NO3)2. This colourless salt absorbs moisture from the air and is commonly found as a tetrahydrate. It is mainly used as a component in fertilizers but has other applications. Nitrocalcite is the name for a mineral which is a hydrated calcium nitrate that forms as an efflorescence where manure contacts concrete or limestone in a dry environment as in stables or caverns. A variety of related salts are known including calcium ammonium nitrate decahydrate and calcium potassium nitrate decahydrate.

Properties
Molecular formula: Ca(NO3)2•4H2O
Appearance: Colorless Crystalline
Molar mass: 236.15 (tetrahydrate)
Density: 1.896 g/cm3
Melting point: 42.7 °C
Boiling point: 132 °C (tetrahydrate)
Solubility in water

Applications
Use in fertilizer
As of 1978, only 170,000 tons/year were produced for applications in fertilizers. The fertilizer grade (15.5-0-0 + 19% Ca) is popular in the greenhouse and hydroponics trades; it contains ammonium nitrate and water, as the "double salt" 5Ca(NO3)2.NH4NO3.10H2O. Formulations lacking ammonia are also known: Ca(NO3)2.4H2O (11.9-0-0 + 16.9%Ca). A liquid formulation (9-0-0 + 11% Ca) is also offered. An anhydrous, air-stable derivative is the urea complex Ca(NO3)2.4[OC(NH2)2], which has been sold as Cal-Urea.
Waste water treatment
Calcium nitrate is used in waste water pre-conditioning for odour emission prevention. The waste water pre-conditioning is based on establishing an anoxic biology in the waste water system. In the presence of nitrate, the metabolism for sulfates stops, thus preventing formation of hydrogen sulphide. Additionally easy degradable organic matter is consumed, which otherwise can cause anaerobic conditions downstream as well as odour emissions itself. The concept is also applicable for surplus sludge treatment.
Concrete
Calcium nitrate is used in set accelerating concrete admixtures. This use with concrete and mortar is based on two effects. The calcium ion accelerates formation of calcium hydroxide and thus precipitation and setting. This effect is used also in cold weather concreting agents as well as some combined plasticizers. The nitrate ion leads to formation of iron hydroxide, whose protective layer reduces corrosion of the concrete reinforcement.
Cooling baths
The dissolution of anhydrous calcium nitrate is highly endothermic (cooling). For this reason, calcium nitrate is sometimes used for regenerateable cold packs.
Heat storage
Calcium nitrate together with Potassium and Sodium nitrate is used to absorb and store energy in the Concentrated Solar Power plants. It can be used as a heat transfer fluid instead of the thermal oil.

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